Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Synchronization Simplified

Most of the Java applications are multi-threaded due to the obvious reasons of better performance and better utilization of resources.

Hence in such applications there are many occasions when two or more threads share an object. Which may lead to situations called “race condition” in which two or more threads are trying access the methods of same object. For Example there may be a case when one thread is writing something to an object while another thread is trying to read from it. In most situations, a race conditions is more subtle and less predictable, because you cannot be sure when the context switch will occur. This can cause the program to run right one time and wrong the next.

When two or more threads need to access an object which is a shared resource they need some way to ensure that the resource will be used by only one thread at a time. The process by which this achieved is called synchronization.

The access to the object can be serialized by the process of synchronization. This is achieved by the use of the keyword “synchronized”. You can synchronize your code in two ways:

Modify the methods of the object with the synchronized keyword. Which makes the object “thread-safe” which implies it is safe to use this object in a multi-threaded application. For Example a Vector is thread-safe whereas an ArrayList is not.

If you want to use an object which is not thread-safe in a multithreaded application we have to use synchronized blocks.

For Example if Person is not thread safe and p is an object of person with Thread t.

Class Person


int age;

public void setAge(int age);


To use p in a thread safe manner we use





A Simple Example for understanding Synchronization.

class Person


int age;

public void setAge(int age)


this.age = age ;


public int getAge()


return age;



class MyThread extends Thread


Person p;

int age;

public MyThread(Person p, int age)


this.p = p;

this.age = age;


public void run()





public class TestSynchronization


public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception


Person p = new Person();

MyThread t1 = new MyThread(p,1);

MyThread t2 = new MyThread(p,2);

MyThread t3 = new MyThread(p,3);







The output of this simple program is unpredictable because the three threads t1,t2,t3 go into a race condition and depending on the context switch the execution of threads take place. The output can be 1, 2, 3 when we expect 3.

To make the program behave in a predictable way we use the synchronized keyword.

We just have to make the methods setAge() and getAge() synchronized.

Hence it is advisable that in multi-threaded applications we use thread-safe classes like Vector, HashTable, etc.

If it is inevitable to use some of the collections in multithreaded environment we can use the Collections class to make synchronized ArrayList, HashMap etc.

ArrayList synchronizedArrayList = Collections.synchronizedList(arraylist);

By the way the HttpSession class is also not thread safe !!!.

That’s all about synchronization….. happy multithreading ….be thread-safe ;-)

Friday, August 17, 2007


Profiling is a set of techniques for estimating the amount of time spent in various portions of your program.

The size of the program unit being profiled is called the granularity.
For example, you can profile





The profile will tell you how much of the execution time can be attributed to each grain you have selected. The most common grain is routine level profiling.

The output of a profiler indicates what fraction of the execution time was spent in each grain.
Presumably, to improve performance, you focus on the grains that are taking the most time.

Any tool which will enable you to do profiling of your program is a Profiler.

There are several commercial as well as open source java profilers.


Using Java profilers you can do profiling of a Java Application, Applet, J2ee components like servlets and JSPs and even J2me Midlets.

My experience with profiling has been plain old logging statements weaved in the production code and using JProfiler (a commercial Java Profiler) .


I have recently used JProfiler for profiling a J2ee application. I am very impressed with its easy to use wizard to integrate with any J2EE application server. I could easily integrate the Resin application server with this tool. The “cpu view” section of the profiler gives information about the method level profiling, about the threads in different states in the application. You can read about some reviews about this tool on


I have managed to dig out some of the methods to concentrate on to improve the performance of the application.

All in all JProfiler is a very useful and easy to use tool …definitely not another buzzword for my CV. ;-)